These are dressage exercises that the horse undertakes whilst being ridden on the flat as opposed being ridden over jumps. Flatwork covers a multitude of exercises from circles, turns, transitions from pace to pace for example from walk to canter and transitions within a pace such as working trot to medium trot.
Lateral movements are where the horse is asked to move both forwards and sideways at he same time, such as when riding Shoulder In, Travers, Half Pass or Leg Yield.
This is an exercise used to supple the horse throughout its entire body. The horse has to move both forwards and sideways at the same time, and remain parallel with the outside track. This is achieved by the horse crossing the front and hind legs over each other during the forwards stride.
It takes time to become proficient at leg yield, the rider needs to be able to give the horse clear aids for leg yield and be able to feel through their seat what the horse is doing underneath them in order to be able to correct the horse if they go unbalanced and feel to what extent the leg yield is progressing to.
More About Leg Yield
This is where the horse moves on three tracks with the shoulders In from the track and with inside bend. Shoulder In is a useful exercise for lightening up a horses forehand as well as helping to supple the horse through their shoulders and engage the hindquarters. It also helps to teach the horse to listen carefully and remain attentive to the riders aids.
More About Shoulder In
This is where the horse is bent around the riders inside leg with the hindquarters at a 30 degree angle inwards. It is also sometimes called Quarters In for this reason. Travers is another excellent movement for helping to engage the hindquarters as well as maintaining forward movement and impulsion.
More About Travers